First, scientific training quality education.
The elderly should know that sports play an irreplaceable key role in health maintenance. Health preservation should be regarded as an essential part in the science of old age.
From 19 to 22 November 2018, 26 researchers from 9 countries and different academic backgrounds issued a position statement document, the "Copenhagen declaration". The declaration emphasizes that the elderly include both elderly people who are active, healthy and physically active in their whole life, including those who are old, weak and poor in physical function.
First of all, we should define the concept of sports. The Copenhagen declaration distinguishes physical activity from exercise. Physical activity is a comprehensive term, including planned or unplanned leisure, transportation, housework and work related activities. Physical activity refers to all activities that the body produces displacement and increases energy consumption when quieter. Exercise is a targeted physical activity aimed at improving the cardiorespiratory function, cognitive function, flexibility, balance, maximum power and / or explosive power. Sports involve determining goals and how to achieve them. This includes two meanings: 1, how to determine a certain period of time for moving targets and how to assess whether or not they have achieved their goals. 2, to achieve the goal of the program. That is, the form of exercise, type, quantity, intensity, duration, intermittent time and other content of the exercise program, and the safety monitoring plan with the exercise plan.
In addition, everyone should cultivate the accomplishment of scientific training, that is, familiarity with the basic points of how to exercise for health: all sports health elements, all body parts and all strength, that is, the principle of scientific exercise. The intensity here refers to the intensity of individuation.
Two. Steps of scientific training
During the epidemic prevention and control period, scientific exercise must ensure safety and effectiveness. The premise of safety and efficiency is to follow the principle of gradual progress. The premise of achieving gradual development is to quantify the effects of sports and sports. Therefore, sports can be divided into the following steps:
(1) quantification of physical condition before exercise
1. Physical conditions include weight and morning pulse.
2, medical indicators of concern: cardiovascular disease, morning pulse, blood pressure, diabetes, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, blood lipids, etc.
3, partial discomfort and degree (such as knee joint): very uncomfortable, uncomfortable, uncomfortable, and no discomfort.
4, medication situation: dosage and timing of medication.
(two) quantification of exercise capacity before exercise.
1, your daily walking speed. Such as the distance between 6 minutes walk, the heart rate after walking, the feeling after walking, the total time to climb a certain staircase and the heart rate after completion.
2, your daily range of joint activities. Is the activity range of each joint in each direction limited?
3, the sense of daily operation of a heavy object: heavy, some heavy, general, light, very light.
4, a relatively hard posture can be maintained for a time. For example, standing on two feet and standing on one leg.
(three) the content of exercise
1, on the basis of the original sports content, increase the volume first and then increase the intensity. And the increase should be maintained for at least one week without any bad feeling, no significant changes in body indexes, medical indicators and feelings. Take walking as an example, the amount of exercise refers to the total mileage, or the total time at the same speed. And intensity refers to speed, completion and immediate heart rate after completion. Take strength as an example, if an action can be completed more than 20 times before you feel tired, you can increase your weight by 5%, then observe it for another week. The weight of the object being lifted is strength. The total number of times completed can be counted as the amount of movement of this object. The completion of heavy objects or an action can be completed 10-15 times, which can better achieve the effect of exercise.
2, on the basis of not changing the original exercise habits, and referring to the three principles of scientific exercise, we find that we are short of exercise. For example, when walking or running every day, does the heart rate increase at the end of walking? If not, speed is needed. For example, walking everyday and insufficient exercise on the upper limbs. The upper arm should be filled with mineral water bottles filled with water. If you can easily finish about 30, you can add sand to the water, or even iron nails to increase the weight. If practicing Tai Chi every day, the heart rate should be increased after the end of the exercise. If not, there should be 2 additional exercises per week to increase heart rate. Such as fast walking, or running, pedaling, etc. Speed increased heart rate by 5 times / minute compared with the original exercise. Observe for a week.
3, the elderly exercise, emphasizing functional exercise, increasing the difficulty of exercise as an important part of the intensity of exercise. If you walk, add a little difficulty to yourself: walk faster; 8 words walk around; on the road, put up some small obstacles, move over obstacles, and try to close your eyes in a straight line on the premise of safety protection; walk up and down, turn left and right while walking in a safe environment. Speed and resistance are required to start slowly and lightly. For the big joints resistance exercise, each movement intensity pass is slow two see three passes, namely moves slowly, carefully realizes the body reaction, then completes.
(four) quantifying the effect of exercise.
1, the evaluation of each exercise. I feel more powerful than last week. If the speed is fast, the heart rate is fast, and feel strong. But control the limited force.
2, weekly medical indicators do not develop in a bad direction. It depends on the trend of development rather than the result of one measurement. At the beginning of the movement, there is no adaptation stage, not only can not reduce the monitoring, but more to monitor the impact of sports on their own bodies, and observe the indicators that are usually used at ordinary times, especially blood pressure, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.
3, the body's feeling, including appetite, sleep, and their overall feeling is not particularly tired. If there is a significant change in sensation, the intensity of exercise can be reduced. First, reduce the amount of movement, such as total mileage and total time. If there is no obvious improvement, then reduce the intensity of exercise.
4, it is recommended that people with conditions wear wearable devices, and have a quantitative record of their heart rate and total distance of exercise. Combined with physical sensation and other indicators, they can judge the impact of sports on themselves.