Cardiovascular disease, as a disease with high mortality rate, is an unchanging inducement caused by heredity, sex and age. However, most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented and adjusted through "body medicine integration", such as smoking cessation, alcohol control, healthy diet and weight control, sports and keeping happy mood.
Exercise intervention has good effect on cardiovascular disease.
According to Liang Chen, deputy director of the medical supervision center of the Sports Medical Research Institute of the State Sports General Administration, and the deputy chief physician of the exercise prescription clinic, the sports Hospital of the State Sports General Administration from 2015 outpatient department treated cardiovascular patients under the guidance of exercise prescription. Some patients suffered from stable heart pain, some underwent coronary artery stent operation or bypass surgery, and some had chronic heart failure or Patients with coronary heart disease combined with hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia have made scientific and individualized exercise prescription for them. Under the guidance of doctors, aerobic exercise, including walking or bicycling, has been carried out, while Qigong and resistance exercise have been conducted. Exercise has increased from two times a week to 3-5 times a week, and the exercise time is 20-60 minutes. Dynamic cardiopulmonary testing determines that prolonged follow-up study shows that exercise intervention has a significant effect on cardiovascular disease.
Liang Chen said: "scientific research on cardiovascular disease patients has found that through a period of scientific exercise, the relevant physical indicators of patients can be effectively improved, and exercise intervention is effective and safe. Exercise can enhance the myocardial contractility of the patients, inhibit myocardial fibrosis and pathological remodeling. At the same time, exercise improves the ability of skeletal muscle to take oxygen and utilize oxygen, increase coronary blood flow, promote coronary collateral formation, reduce blood viscosity, improve coagulation inhibition, delay the occurrence and progress of atherosclerosis, improve autonomic nervous function and reduce sympathetic nerve activity. 。 It can be said that exercise can inhibit or lighten the symptoms of hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure and hyperlipidemia.
Exercise prescription should follow five principles.
"For the formulation of exercise prescription, we should follow the following five principles: safety, science, professional guidance, individualization and gradual progress." Obligations, sports attention and other parts.
For aerobic exercise part of the exercise prescription, Liang Chen suggested low intensity, rhythmic and sustainable forms of exercise, such as fast walking, jogging, cycling, relaxing gymnastics, Taijiquan, qigong and so on. "Generally do not choose swimming, dancing, basketball, squash and athletics, because of the high risk of sports for patients. In early rehabilitation, patients can use interval training, each exercise for 3-10 minutes, 2-5 times a day, for patients with limited motor ability can also increase daily physical activities such as housework, gardening and so on. Liang Chen added, "we will monitor the electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, gas metabolism and blood oxygen saturation of the body in the exercise state through exercise cardiopulmonary test, and determine the risk of exercise and exercise intensity through the occurrence of symptoms or risk events in patients' movements, such as ECG changes, abnormal blood pressure increase or decrease, arrhythmia, etc.
For resistance exercise part of the formulation of exercise prescription is more cautious, Liang Chen said: "patients in the resistance exercise exercise, based on aerobic exercise, at the beginning should use a slight resistance, in order to be familiar with the action, the initial goal is repeated 10 times, before increasing resistance, each group repeats 15 times, when can complete 1-2 groups, each group 15, increase 5-10% resistance, increase the amount of Minimum increment of sports equipment or mode of motion. 3-5 parts can be selected for training, such as sitting on the upper limb, pushing the biceps, flexor and extension of the triceps brachii, flexion and extension of the lower extremities, prone bending, leg flexion and extension, gastrocnemius training, etc.
Patient movement should be conducted under guidance and supervision.
Liang stressed: "cardiovascular disease patients need to conduct risk assessment before exercise to see whether there are cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic diseases or surgical history, including recent cardiovascular events or other related cardiovascular diseases; whether there are clinical symptoms, such as difficulty in breathing when quiet, dizziness or vertigo, palpitation or arrhythmia, chest pain, and so on. Do cardiovascular diseases exist? Risk factors: age, obesity, smoking, sedentary activity, family history and so on. Review the recent physical examination results, including 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, exercise load test, namely exercise cardiopulmonary test or electrocardiogram treadmill exercise test. At the same time, the heart rate and blood pressure should be measured weekly, whether there are symptoms or evidence of intolerance to exercise, to check the situation of revascularization and implantation of pacemaker / defibrillator, and to assess the dosage, dosage and frequency of drugs currently taken. After evaluation, low risk patients can exercise at home under the guidance of doctors. Patients in middle risk are strictly guided by doctors' home exercise, while high risk patients need to exercise or temporarily exercise under doctor supervision. Therefore, the movement of patients with cardiovascular disease should be closely related to doctors, or at least under the guidance of doctors.
In addition, we can not exaggerate the role of sports. Self prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular disease is a five in one project, including self-management ability of daily life, including exercise, knowledge of cardiovascular diseases and common drugs, understanding of exercise and proper exercise patterns, self emotion and sleep management skills, and understanding of the importance of nutrition. Five aspects of maintaining good nutrition are indispensable. " Liang Chen said.